Why are Fine-Tuned Models the Future of LLMs?

Oct 25, 2023

5 min read

While driving through the intricate ins and outs of your bustling town, don’t you like being the most efficient and reaching your desired destination without wasting too much time? Then why compromise on your Large Language Model and its performance (latency or personality)? There are multiple reasons and causes for your LLM being sub-par, but none more annoying than a fantastic architecture on unique hardware, which is most likely because of your ill-tuned model.

This blog will focus on the intricacies of fine-tuning large language models, these obnoxious black box codes, which are you and your company’s gateway to greatness. Let us peruse this guide, which compiles our findings here at NimbleBox.ai with our Chatbot ChatNBX!

Why is Fine-Tuning Essential?

In the ever-evolving landscape of AI, fine-tuning has emerged as a game-changer for LLaMA models. These remarkable models can potentially revolutionize numerous domains, from sentiment analysis and text generation to document similarity. However, fine-tuning comes into play to unlock their power and adapt them to specific tasks.

Fine-tuning is akin to sculpting a masterpiece from a block of marble. It takes the inherent capabilities of LLMs and hones them to perfection for specialized areas, optimizing their performance. This meticulous process does more than just enhance the precision; it also significantly impacts efficiency, saving valuable computational resources and training time.

One of the most compelling features of fine-tuning is its ability to promote transfer learning. It enables LLaMA models to seamlessly transition from one task to another, leveraging the existing knowledge without extensive retraining. Once an LLM is fine-tuned for a specific job, it can swiftly adapt to related tasks, excelling with minimal additional training.

Choosing the Right LLaMA Model

LLaMA has quickly become one of the best alternatives to proprietary models lately, making Large Language Models a way more interactable black box than the GPT models. Giving the ability to tinker with such huge models has been the game changer in the current market, making companies build up their own AI divisions and deploying intelligent models.

Let us take a look at some of the parameters you should consider while choosing the right model for your pipeline:

1. Accuracy: ChatGPT comes packed with years of trained weights that have been trained on TBs and TBs of data, which means that the alternative you go for needs to be trained on data almost as big as that even to reach that level of accuracy. (pst. Heard of LLaMA🦙)

2. Creativity: At its core, what got everyone reeled and hooked on ChatGPT was the bot’s ability to act creatively and create texts and content by taking a role and writing in different styles, having a wide range of genres. Your alternative should be able to mimic that level of creativity, barring the various moderations and walls that ChatGPT comes with.

3. Privacy: The Chatbot or the LLM needs to be transparent about how they use your data because there is a high chance you are using it to help write your thesis. Once such trust is established, or even in the case of no such provision for data sharing, the model should be simple enough to be deployed on private and closed servers.

4. Ease of Use: Having LLMs in a conversational setting is the USP for most deployed language models, giving the user the provision to have the ability to ask the bot to take up the role of a professional in the field and answer accordingly.

5. Cost: The cost of deploying such a model needs to be considered before using or even hosting your LLM. The price of such a model includes various aspects such as procuring the data, training on custom data, and deploying such a model through LangChain or GPT Codex.

To know more about the models and alternatives you can explore for your production, how about checking out ChatNBX, where we update the latest LLaMA models that we love, and our previous blog and talking about such options?

Data Preparation

Fine-tuning a pre-trained model usually refers to one significant improvement in the context of the weights and information the initial model is trained upon. Generally speaking, larger models, for example, LLaMA, contain a plethora of information that fails to make sense of the conversation when talked to in an industry or task-specific conversation and takes forever to capture context.

The foundational Large Language Model (LLM) is already equipped with a pre-trained knowledge base, having undergone self-supervised learning on an extensive corpus of unstructured textual data. Fine-tuning, on the other hand, represents a supervised learning endeavor. It involves leveraging a labeled dataset containing specific examples to refine the model's parameters initially established during the base LLM training.

This training dataset consists of pairs comprising prompts and corresponding completions from diverse examples. The fine-tuning process then applies this dataset to enhance the model's capacity to produce accurate and contextually appropriate completions for a given task. When this fine-tuning approach updates all the model's weights, it is called "full fine-tuning."

An alternative strategy known as "PEFT" (Parameter Efficient Fine-Tuning) takes a different route. Here, only a select subset of parameters within the model undergo updates. This more targeted approach allows for efficiency in parameter modification while still tailoring the model for specific tasks.

Evaluating Fine-Tuned Models

Evaluation plays a pivotal role in the fine-tuning procedure. Large Language Models (LLMs) present a distinct challenge because their effectiveness goes beyond mere precision; it revolves around the quality of the text they produce. Conventional measures like loss or validation scores offer little insight into these scenarios. Even more informative metrics like perplexity and accuracy must be revised in presenting a comprehensive performance overview, as they can only ensure contextually relevant or high-quality outcomes despite high confidence and correctness in predicting the next word.

Hence, one can use modern techniques specially designed to ensure you catch the entire range of the confusion matrix and make them legible and quantifiable. Let us look at some of the evaluation metrics Huggingface.co uses for the open LLMs being deployed on their website.

1. AI2 Reasoning Challenge: The latest question set, text corpus, and baselines assembled to encourage AI research in advanced question answering. These constitute the AI2 Reasoning Challenge (ARC), which requires far more powerful knowledge and reasoning than previous challenges such as SQuAD or SNLI. The ARC question set is partitioned into a Challenge Set and an Easy Set, where the Challenge Set contains only questions answered incorrectly by both a retrieval-based algorithm and a word co-occurrence algorithm.

2. HellaSwag: This metric works on the studies and statistics that even the most advanced models continue to grapple with common-sense reasoning. To illustrate this, this metric is presented as a novel challenge dataset called HellaSwag. While the questions in HellaSwag are straightforward for humans (achieving over 95% accuracy), cutting-edge models struggle to perform, with an accuracy rate of less than 48%.

3. TruthfulQA: This benchmark is designed to gauge the accuracy of a language model when it generates responses to queries. This benchmark consists of 817 questions covering 38 diverse categories, ranging from health and law to finance and politics. These questions were carefully formulated in a way that might lead some humans to provide incorrect answers based on false beliefs or misconceptions. To excel in this benchmark, models must refrain from generating incorrect responses that may be learned from mimicking human-written text.

We hope these metrics will help you judge how well your model performs under such real-life situation inducing tasks.


As we've explored in this blog, fine-tuning LLaMA models can elevate your AI systems’ precision, efficiency, and adaptability across various specialized tasks, from sentiment analysis to text generation and document similarity.

Your choice should be guided by the unique demands of your project, considering factors like model size, performance on benchmarks, ease of fine-tuning, available computational resources, and ethical considerations. It's essential to keep abreast of the latest developments in this dynamic field, as new variants and techniques are constantly emerging.

Written By

Aryan Kargwal

Data Evangelist

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